Article Abstract

Rectal cancer in the young: analysis of contributing factors and surgical outcomes

Authors: Odinaka Mogor, Agnes Ewongwo, Ogaga Ojameruaye, Viraj Pandit, Pamela Omesiete, Carolina Martinez, Paul Hsu, Aaron Scott, Emad Elquza, Valentine Nfonsam

Abstract

Background: Rectal cancer (RC) among young patients (≤50 years) is on the rise. The factors associated with development of RC are established however; factors leading to early RC remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with RC among young patients
Methods: National estimates for patients with RC were abstracted from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database [2010–2012]. Patients were divided into two groups: young (≤50 years) and old (>50 years). Demographic, comorbidities, procedures performed, and hospital outcomes were collected. Regression analysis was performed to compare both groups.
Results: A total of 68,699 patients with RC were included. Incidence of RC among young patients increased significantly over the study period (2.4% vs. 3.4%; P=0.04). Majority of young patients with RC were white females. Bleeding was the most common presentation among young patients (P=0.03). Younger patients were more likely to have a family history of RC (P=0.01) and were more likely to undergo elective surgery (P=0.04) and laparoscopic surgery (P=0.02) compared to the older patients. Younger patients with RC were also more likely to use alcohol (P=0.03), be obese (P=0.02) compared to elder patients. There was no difference in the other co-morbidities between the two groups. After controlling for all factors in a regression model, younger patients had a lower complication rate (P=0.01), hospital LOS (P=0.02), and mortality rate (P=0.04).
Conclusions: RC in younger patients appears as a different disease with different outcomes. There appears to be multifactorial and environmental factors contributing to this trend. Race and gender also play a role in the incidence of RC in the young. Identifying these risk factors will lead to a more robust intervention plan to help improve care among younger patients with RC.