Article Abstract

Long-term follow-up after conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) with mitomycin for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

Authors: Ricardo Yamada, Beatriz Bassaco, Stephen Bracewell, Kirkpatrick Gillen, Madison Kocher, Heather Collins, Michael Bret Anderson, Marcelo Guimaraes


Background: Conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) is a common treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is associated with increased overall survival (OS) when compared to conservative management. The purpose of this study is to analyze all c-TACE with mitomycin in patients with HCC at a single institution to determine safety, efficacy, and prognostic factors in a long-term follow-up.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with HCC treated only with c-TACE with Mitomycin between 2007 and 2012. Efficacy was determined by OS at 1, 3, and 5 years, censored by date of death or last known follow-up. Treatment response was assessed according to mRECIST criteria and the degree of lipiodol uptake by the lesions was assessed by CT at 1-month follow-up. Prognostic factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis, significance levels set at 0.05.
Results: A total of 60 patients were identified. OS rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 72.1%, 47.8% and 39.3%, respectively. Median OS was 15 months. Tumor response by mRECIST criteria was complete; objective response, defined as combination of complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) patients, was 76%. When stratified by tumor response, risk of death in patients with progressive disease in 5 years was significantly higher compared to patients with objective response [hazard ratio (HR): 2.531, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.110–5.778, P=0.0273]. Lipiodol uptake analysis was available in 51 patients; there was no statistically significant difference in OS in patients with higher lipiodol uptake compared to less uptake (<50% versus >50% uptake; HR: 0.713, 95% CI: 0.316–1.611, P=0.4161].
Conclusions: c-TACE with mitomycin was effective and safe in this long-term follow-up study. Risk of death was significantly higher in patients without objective tumor response.