Article Abstract

Outcomes of patients treated with capecitabine and temozolamide for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and non-PNETs

Authors: Renata D’Alpino Peixoto, Krista L. Noonan, Peter Pavlovich, Hagen F. Kennecke, Howard J. Lim


Background: Retrospective studies have demonstrated high response rates among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) treated with capecitabine and temozolamide (CapTem), while responses are infrequently seen among non-PNETs. The objective of the study was to describe progression free survival (PFS) among neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients treated with CapTem, and to identify factors associated with better activity.
Methods: Patients who were referred to one of five provincial cancer treatment centers between 2009 and 2013 for advanced NETs and initiated CapTem were included. Patients received Cap 1,500 mg/m2 on days 1-14 and TMZ 200 mg/m2 on days 10-14 every 28 days. Their characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: In our cohort, 29 patients (16 males) with a median age of 59 (range 26-76) received palliative CapTem, 15 of them as first-line chemotherapy. Primary tumors included pancreas (48.3%), small bowel (20.7%), lung (10.3%), unknown (10.3%), rectum (6.9%) and appendix (3.4%). Median number of cycles was three. Fifteen patients (51.7%) received CapTem as first-line chemotherapy and 14 (48.3%) as subsequent lines. Median PFS for the entire cohort was 4.7 months. PNETs had a median PFS of 4.9 months compared to 2.8 months for non-PNETs (P=0.178). Patients with PNETs who received CapTem in the first-line setting had a median PFS of 15.9 months as compared to only 3.1 months for the remainder [P=0.047, hazard ratios (HR) 0.342]. Patients with Ki67 above 5% and ≤5% had median PFS of 4.0 and 4.7 months, respectively (P=0.260).
Conclusions: CapTem showed good activity among PNETs, but its broader role in the treatment of carcinoid tumors remains unclear.