Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor, presenting as a second malignancy after gastric adenocarcinoma: a case report and literature review
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET), is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Here we report a case of GNET arising in the intestine of a 33-year-old female, who had been treated for gastric adenocarcinoma with surgery and chemotherapy at the age of 19, in 2001. Since then, she underwent follow-up care annually and kept disease free. Nevertheless, in 2015 she presented with vomiting and was found to have a mass in the small intestine. Surgical excision was performed. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by polygonal cells with clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm, and variably scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed diffuse and strong expression for S100, but AE1/AE3 cytokeratin, HMB-45 and Melan-A were negative. Genetically, EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). All these alterations were different from primary gastric adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the tumor gave metastases to ileal mesentery and lung in 1 and 4 years later, respectively. In summary, this is the ﬁrst report of primary intestinal GNET with multiple metastases in a young woman who had a known history of chemotherapy for gastric adenocarcinoma. In consistence with previous literature, which reported a secondary GNET following chemotherapy for hepatoblastoma, we speculate that the chemotherapy might trigger the rearrangement of EWSR1 and then promote the tumorigenesis of GNET.