Heavy charged particles for gastrointestinal cancers

Yuka Isozaki, Hirotoshi Takiyama, Tapesh Bhattacharyya, Daniel Ebner, Goro Kasuya, Hirokazu Makishima, Hiroshi Tsuji, Tadashi Kamada, Shigeru Yamada


Carbon ion beams constitute the primary delivery method of heavy ion radiotherapy. It offers improved dose distribution, and enables concentration of dose within target volumes with minimal extraneous exposure of normal tissue, while delivering superior biological effect in comparison with photon and proton technologies. Here, we review the application of this technology to various gastrointestinal cancers.