Neoadjuvant therapy and pancreatic cancer: a national cancer database analysis

Ravi Shridhar, Caitlin Takahashi, Jamie Huston, Kenneth L. Meredith


Background: We sought to examine the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT), single agent or multiagent chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) on survival in pancreatic cancer.
Methods: Utilizing the National Cancer Database, we identified patients who underwent pancreatic resection for adenocarcinoma (2006 to 2013). Overall survival (OS) analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models (MVA) and propensity score matching (PSM) were developed to identify predictors of survival. For upfront surgery (UFS), OS was limited to receipt of adjuvant treatment.
Results: We identified 26,563 patients who underwent pancreatic resection: UFS =23,877, NCRT =1,482, and NCT =1,204. Multiagent chemotherapy was utilized in 77% of NCT and 42% of NCRT. There was improved R0 resections associated with neoadjuvant therapy compared to UFS, however, there was no difference between NCT and NCRT. In addition, the was improved R0 with MA-NCT (P<0.001) but not for single agent NCT (P=0.26). After PSM, the median OS for UFS, SA-NCT, MA-NCT, SA-NCRT, and MA-NCRT was 21.9, 21.5, 29.8, 25.3, and 25.8 months in all patients (P=0.001), and 23.6, 23.9, 31.6, 25.9, and 26.6 months in R0 patients (P=0.03), respectively. There was no difference in OS in patients with R1/2 resection. MVA after PSM demonstrated that only MA-NCT was associated with decreased mortality while increasing age, higher Charlson-Deyo index, N1, higher grade, tumor size, and positive margins were associated with higher mortality.
Conclusions: There was improved OS associated with MA-NCT in pancreatic cancer patients compared to UFS with adjuvant therapy.