Article Abstract

Local excision for patients with stage I anal canal squamous cell carcinoma can be curative

Authors: Sakti Chakrabarti, Zhaohui Jin, Brandon M. Huffman, Siddhartha Yadav, Rondell P. Graham, Dora M. Lam-Himlin, Amy L. Lightner, Christopher L. Hallemeier, Amit Mahipal

Abstract

Background: Definitive concurrent chemoradiation is the current standard of care for all stage I anal canal squamous cell carcinoma. Local excision as primary treatment for selected stage I lesions has been reported in the literature but is not currently recommended by major guidelines. We herein compared the oncologic outcomes of patients with stage I anal canal squamous cell carcinoma treated with local excision alone versus chemoradiation to determine if there are any significant differences in outcomes including disease free survival, overall survival (OS) and local failure rate.
Methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated for stage I anal canal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2016 was conducted. Data collected included baseline demographics, staging studies, pathology, treatment received, relapse pattern and survival.
Results: A total of 57 patients were treated for stage I anal canal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2016; 13 were treated with local excision alone and 44 were treated with chemoradiation therapy. Baseline characteristics in both cohorts of patients were comparable. Median follow-up duration of the local excision and the chemoradiation cohorts were 106 and 70 months, respectively. Of the 13 patients in local excision cohort, two patients had disease recurrence, at 21 and 97 months from the diagnosis. Both patients were long term survivors with salvage treatment. In chemoradiation cohort, 1 out of 44 patients had a local recurrence at 1 year who underwent curative resection. Five-year progression free survival (PFS) of subjects in local excision cohort and chemoradiation cohort were 91% and 83%, respectively (P=0.57).
Conclusions: Local excision as primary treatment may be safe and effective for a selected group of stage I anal canal squamous cell carcinoma patients.

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