Article Abstract

A phase I trial of Proton stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver metastases

Authors: Joseph I. Kang, Daniel C. Sufficool, Chung-Tsen Hsueh, Andrew J. Wroe, Baldev Patyal, Mark E. Reeves, Jerry D. Slater, Gary Y. Yang


Background: A phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Proton stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver metastases in anticipation of a subsequent phase II study.
Methods: An institutional IRB approved phase I clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients had 1–3 liver metastases measuring less than 5 cm, and no metastases location within 2 cm of the GI tract. Dose escalation was conducted with three dose cohorts. The low, intermediate, and high dose cohorts were planned to receive 36, 48, and 60 respectively to the internal target volume (ITV) in 3 fractions. At least 700 mL of normal liver had to receive <15. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) included acute grade 3 liver, intestinal or spinal cord toxicity or any grade 4 toxicity. The MTD is defined as the dose level below that which results in DLT in 2 or more of the 6 patients in the highest dose level cohort.
Results: Nine patients were enrolled (6 male, 3 female): median age 64 years (range, 33–77 years); median gross tumor volume (GTV) 11.1 mL (range, 2.14–89.3 mL); most common primary site, colorectal (5 patients). Four patients had multiple tumors. No patient experienced a DLT and dose was escalated to 60 in 3 fractions without reaching MTD. The only toxicity within 90 days of completion of treatment was one patient with a grade 1 skin hyperpigmentation without tenderness or desquamation. Two patients in the low dose cohort had local recurrence and repeat SBRT was done to previously treated lesions without any toxicities.
Conclusions: Biologically ablative Proton SBRT doses are well tolerated in patients with limited liver metastases with no patients experiencing any grade 2+ acute toxicity. Results from this trial provide the grounds for an ongoing phase II Proton SBRT study of 60 over 3 fractions for liver metastases.