Article Abstract

Viral hepatitis associated hepatocellular carcinoma outcomes with yttrium-90 radioembolization

Authors: Jessica M. Frakes, Yazan A. Abuodeh, Arash O. Naghavi, Michelle I. Echevarria, Ravi Shridhar, Mark Friedman, Richard Kim, Ghassan El-Haddad, Bela Kis, Benjamin Biebel, Jennifer Sweeney, Junsung Choi, Daniel Anaya, Anna R. Giuliano, Sarah E. Hoffe


Background: Viral associated (VA) malignancies have recently been correlated with improved outcomes. We sought to evaluate outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with and without viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C) treated with lobar yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y-90 RE).
Methods: After IRB approval, an institutional database of patients with HCC who received RE between 2009–2014 was queried and 99 patients were identified that received a total of 122 lobar RE. Charts were reviewed to capture previous treatments, viral hepatitis status, α-fetoprotein values (AFP), Child-Pugh class (CP), albumin-bilirubin score (ALBI), portal vein thrombosis (PVT), volumes treated and doses delivered. Comparison was made with Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test. Intrahepatic control (IHC), extrahepatic control (EHC), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method stratified by cause of underlying liver disease (viral vs. non-viral) and survival differences were assessed via the log-rank test. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression.
Results: Median follow up for VA HCC and non-VA (NVA) HCC patients was 10.9 months (range, 0.8–46.7 months) and 11.8 months (range, 1.1–62.8 months), respectively. Patients with VA HCC (n=44) were younger (P<0.001) and had smaller pretreatment liver volumes (P<0.001); however, there was no difference with respect to gender, pre-treatment AFP, CP, ALBI, PVT, extrahepatic disease, previous treatment, or dose delivered. Median doses for VA and NVA HCC patients were 129.5 Gy (range, 90–215.8 Gy) and 131 Gy (range, 100.9–265 Gy), respectively (P=0.75). One year IHC showed a strong trend to better control for VA HCC at 67% versus 34% for NVA HCC (P=0.067) but 1 year EHC was significantly worse at 63% for VA HCC versus 86% for NVA HCC (P=0.027). There were no significant differences in survival, with a 1-year PFS of 45% for VA HCC versus 31% for NVA HCC (P=0.56) and 1 year OS of 46% versus 55% (P=0.55). Patients that received salvage treatments, CP A, no PVT, and those without extrahepatic disease had improved OS.
Conclusions: Patients with VA HCC had a trend to improved IHC and significantly worse EHC. Prospective investigation of novel systemic therapies following Y-90 RE in patients with VA HCC is warranted to potentially further extend survival in VA HCC patients by addressing extra-hepatic disease.