Second-line therapy in advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers: current status and new prospects
The prognosis of patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers (UGC) remains poor. Current available systemic armamentarium is limited, and little progress has been made over the last decades. Main achievements have been obtained in first-line setting, however an increasingly proportion of patients are considered for second-line therapy, although data from randomized trials are scarce or even lacking. In this comprehensive review we examine the literature to summarize the efficacy and limitations of second-line systemic options in patients with advanced UGC, with a glimpse into the innovations.