Article Abstract

Advanced duodenal neoplasia and carcinoma in familial adenomatous polyposis: outcomes of surgical management

Authors: Fábio Guilherme Campos, Carlos Augusto Real Martinez, Leonardo Alfonso Bustamante Lopez, Danilo Toshio Kanno, Sérgio Carlos Nahas, Ivan Cecconello

Abstract

Background: In addition to the presence of neoplasia in the colon and rectum, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may develop numerous polyps and carcinoma within the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Methods: The aim of the present paper was to review the incidence advanced duodenal polyposis or cancer and their surgical outcomes. A retrospective review of patients’ records from our department was performed. Information was retrieved from a prospective collected data, including clinical (gender, age, family history), endoscopic [association with colorectal cancer (CRC), polyposis severity, age at diagnosis] and surgical management (age, time from the index surgery, type of procedure, morbidity). Duodenal adenomatosis at the time of surgery was classified according to Spigelman stages.
Results: In a group of 145 FAP patients, 8 (5.5%) had been surgically treated for duodenal advanced neoplasia [3] or cancer [5]. There were included 2 women and 6 men whose first endoscopic examination and diagnosis of advanced neoplasia/cancer was made at median ages of 47.3 [28–63] and 51.8 years, respectively. Duodenal carcinomas occurred later (55.8 years) when compared to advanced adenomatosis (45.3 years). Three patients were diagnosed due to symptoms, while the others were detected under endoscopic surveillance. Age interval between FAP treatment and duodenal neoplasia diagnosis was 15.3 years [0–47]. All but one patient underwent duodenopancreatectomy (DP). Two from the 7 patients undergoing DP died, one from pulmonary embolism 30 days after surgery and the other from recurrent T4N0 duodenal tumor. Thus, major operative morbidity and mortality were 12.5%.
Conclusions: In this single-center Brazilian series of FAP patients: (I) advanced duodenal neoplasia or cancer requiring surgery occurred in 5.5% of patients; (II) when reaching the fifth decade of life, patients should be carefully evaluated to diagnose and treat early lesions; (III) in spite of the technical complexity of DP, operative morbidity is acceptable in experienced hands; and (IV) continuous surveillance is necessary during follow-up.