Article Abstract

Splenectomy is an independent risk factor for poorer perioperative outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: an analysis of 936 procedures

Authors: Akshat Saxena, Winston Liauw, David L. Morris

Abstract

Background: There is a paucity of data on the impact of splenectomy on peri-operative outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). We report the largest series to date which addresses this topic.
Methods: Nine hundred and thirty six consecutive patients underwent CRS/HIPEC from 1996 to 2016 at a high-volume institution in Sydney, Australia. Of these, 418 (45%) underwent splenectomy. Peri-operative complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo Classi cation. The association of splenectomy with 19 peri-operative outcomes was assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: In-hospital mortality was 1.8%. Patients undergoing splenectomy had a higher disease burden (peritoneal cancer index ≥17) (71% vs. 22%, P<0.001) and underwent a longer operation (≥9 hours) (73% vs. 34%, P<0.001). Even after accounting for confounding factors, splenectomy was independently associated with an increased risk of grade III/IV morbidity [relative risk (RR), 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29–2.91; P=0.01], infective complications (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.09–2.44; P=0.018), pancreatic leak (RR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.81–14.89, P=0.002) and intra-abdominal collection (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.23–2.84, P=0.004). It was also an independent risk factor for long hospital stay (≥28 days) (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25–3.11; P=0.003). Splenectomy was not associated with in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 0.32–9.32, P=0.556).
Conclusions: Splenectomy is an independent risk factor for poorer peri-operative outcomes. Minimizing the likelihood of inadvertent splenic injury through careful dissection and routine vaccination can improve outcomes.