Promising therapeutics of gastrointestinal cancers in clinical trials
Many novel therapeutics are being developed for patients with cancers along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These emerging agents are frequently classified by their biological targets such as tumor growth pathways, tumor metabolism, microenvironment, etc. Some agents targeting cancer growth pathways are based on existing clinically validated therapeutic targets, such as regorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while other agents focus on newly identified targets, such as FGFR fusions in cholangiocarcinoma. Drugs modifying the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment have emerged as an attractive area of clinical investigation. Moreover, drugs targeting the stem-cell like qualities of cancer and the tight junction protein claudin 18.2 have generated quite a lot of excitement in the field. In this paper, we will systemically review the recent promising agents and therapeutic strategies in GI cancers.