EBV-associated hepatic smooth muscle tumor of uncertain biologic behavior after heart transplantation in a pediatric patient: case report
Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare neoplasm recognized in immunocompromised patients. There are less than 30 cases of EBV-SMT reported in pediatric population following solid organ transplantation. Herein, we report a case of an 8-year-old female who was incidentally noted to have multiple lesions in the liver 8 years after heart transplantation. The tumor was composed of a cellular proliferation of spindle-shaped cells with low mitotic activity. The diagnosis of EBV-SMT was confirmed by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) transcripts. Multiple additional lesions were detected by whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan 4 months after the initial finding of the hepatic lesions. Immunosuppression was switched to a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. We conclude that EBV-SMT should be included in the differential diagnoses in post-transplantation patients and further investigations should be performed to evaluate additional lesions.