Combined dabrafenib and trametinib treatment in a case of chemotherapy-refractory extrahepatic BRAF V600E mutant cholangiocarcinoma: dramatic clinical and radiological response with a confusing synchronic new liver lesion
Since the prognosis of advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains poor with traditional chemotherapy, attention has shifted to molecularly targeted agents. Results of available clinical studies reveal little or no bene t of using targeted agents in advanced CCA. Limitations of these trials could be the lack of comprehensive molecular and genetic characterization of CCA samples in order to identify potential drug targets. Here we report a case of a 59-year-old female with chemotherapy-refractor, metastatic extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCCA). After failure of rst-line chemotherapy with cisplatin plus gemcitabine, next generation sequencing (NGS) based tumor molecular profiling was performed on aspiration cytological sample, that revealed BRAF V600E mutation. Multidisciplinary team decided on the initiation of combined treatment with BRAF and MEK inhibitors. Dabrafenib was started orally 150 mg twice a day, adding trametinib 2 mg once a day. Right from the initiation of targeted therapy, signi cant clinical improvement had been observed. Even though the rst restaging computed tomography (CT) scan at 8 weeks revealed spectacular decrease in all metastatic sites, a new hepatic mass of 67 mm × 40 mm was identified and interpreted as new metastatic lesion. As the clinical and radiological response was contradictory, CT-guided biopsy was taken from the hepatic lesion while the therapy was continued on. Histopathologic evaluation excluded the hepatic lesion from being a metastasis, instead described it as a brotic, in ammatory lesion. At 12 week, PET CT con rmed further tumor regression with complete regression of the multiple cerebral metastases. The therapy has been extremely well tolerated by the patient. According to our knowledge, this is the rst reported case on a successful treatment of EHCCA with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib. Our case highlights the importance of molecular pro ling in CCA, in order to nd potential actionable driver mutations for personalised treatment.