Article Abstract

Individualized 4-dimensional computed tomography proton treatment for pancreatic tumors

Authors: Matthew L Knecht, Ning Wang, April Vassantachart, Rachel Mifflin, Jerry D Slater, Gary Y Yang


Background: The goal of this study is to determine whether a phase or reconstruction of a 10-phase 4 dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) scan can be used as the primary planning scan for proton treatment of the pancreas, thus eliminating the need for second a slow CT or free breathing CT.
Methods: Ten patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were simulated with 4D CT and a proton treatment plan generated based upon one of three primary planning scans, the T0 phase, T50 phase or average reconstruction. These plans were then exported to each of the remaining phases of the 4D CT and the dose to 95% of the target (D95) calculated. Plans were deemed adequate if the D95 remained at 99% of the prescribed dose or greater.
Results: For the ten patients in this study anterior abdominal motion was found to range from 2–27 mm (mean 7.50±6.79 mm). For 9 of 10 patients the anterior abdominal motion was ≤8 mm and all three primary planning scans provided adequate target coverage, resulting in minimum D95 coverage per plan of T0_plan 99.7%, T50_plan 99.3% and AVE_plan 99%. However no plan provided adequate target coverage on the single patient with the largest anterior abdominal motion, 27 mm, and cranio-caudal motion, 20 mm, with minimum D95 values of T0_plan 96.3%, T50_plan 68%, and AVE_plan 68%.
Conclusions: The primary plans tested based up on the T0, T50 and average reconstructions provided adequate D95 coverage throughout the respiratory cycle as long as the anterior abdominal motion was ≤8 mm and can be considered for use as the primary proton planning scan.