Biliary cancer: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma vs. extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma vs. gallbladder cancers: classification and therapeutic implications
Biliary cancers (BCs) are a diverse group of tumors that arise from the bile duct epithelium and are divided into cholangiocarcinomas of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) and cancer of the gallbladder. Despite improvements in treatment and diagnosis, BCs are often diagnosed at an advanced stage and associated with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recent discoveries have allowed us to have a better understanding of the genomic diversity in BC, and identify genes that are likely contributing to its pathogenesis, proliferation and treatment resistance. Additionally, these advances have allowed us to reason that each anatomic group within BC behave as distinct diseases, with differences in prognosis and outcomes. Based on this knowledge, recent advances have allowed us to identify actionable mutations that form rational therapeutic targets with novel agents, where their relevance will be better understood through the completion of prospective clinical trials.